What is vitiligo?
Vitiligo is a skin disease that causes patients to develop white lesions on the skin that vary in size and location. The white lesions occur when pigment cells, called melanocytes, are destroyed and the pigment, melanin, cannot be produced.
What causes vitiligo?
The exact cause of vitiligo is unknown, but evidence suggests that it is a combination of genetic, immunologic and environmental factors. This means that some people may have a greater tendency to develop the disease when exposed to the right trigger.
Is every white patch -Vitiligo?
Absolutely no, it is essential to understand that white patches in the skin (leucoderma) may be due to various causes like birth marks, post burns or some disease, due to some chemicals etc. Vitiligo is just one of the types of white patches which occur without obvious cause.
Is Vitiligo at all contagious?
No. Because if it was so then many more people in the world including the treating doctors and family members of Vitiligo patients would have developed Vitiligo.
Is Vitiligo an inherited condition?
It is estimated that approximately 5 - 10% of Vitiligo patients give a family history of Vitiligo. Therefore it is difficult to say if Vitiligo is truly an inherited condition.
Are diet and Vitiligo related?
Vitiligo does not occur due to any dietary deficiency. There is no scientific basis to prove that any specific type of food (including white dietary products) causes or worsens Vitiligo.
Is it advisable for a person with Vitiligo to marry?
There is no reason not to marry a person with Vitiligo. It is not infectious at all. Again, please remember that Vitiligo is not a disease but a cosmetic problem only, and it is we who have to remove the stigma attached to it from our minds.
How long does it take to treat Vitiligo?
It is difficult to state definitely, as each patient shows variable response at a variable pace. The duration of treatment ranges between 6 months to many years.
What are the treatment options available?
Presently there are number of treatment options available –including steroid creams, immunomodulators like tacrolimus or pimecrolimus, PUVA therapy, UVB therapy.Relatively newer modalities of treatment are narrow brand UVB and surgical treatment like skin grafting, and pigment transplantation.
Are there any cosmetics available to cover-up Vitiligo spots?
Nowadays, a number of camouflage creams are available which can be selected and applied over Vitiligo patches to match the patient's natural skin colour as closely as possible. However these creams are of temporary nature, their benefit ranging from few hours to few days.
Male Pattern Baldness
What is male pattern baldness?
Male pattern baldness is the common type of hair loss that develops in most men at some stage. The condition is sometimes called androgenetic alopecia.
Typically, at first the hair begins to recede (thin) at the front. At the same time, the hair usually becomes thin on the top of the head. A bald patch gradually develops in the middle of the scalp. The receding front, and the bald patch on the top (the crown) gradually enlarge and join together. A rim of hair is often left around the back and sides of the scalp.
Who gets male pattern baldness?
Nearly all men have some baldness by the time they are in their 60s. However, the age the hair loss starts is variable. About 30% develop some baldness in 30 plus age and 50% of people in 50 plus age are somewhat bald.
What causes male pattern baldness?
Male hormones are involved in causing these changes. For reasons that are not clear, affected hair follicles become more sensitive to male harmone- dihydrotestosterone, which causes the hair follicles to shrink. It is also not clear why different hair follicles are affected at different times to make the balding process gradual. The condition is genetic (hereditary).
What are the treatment options for male pattern baldness?
Currently there are two medicines that help – minoxidil, finasteride
Minoxidil lotion is a rub-on treatment, available in two strengths-5% & 2%. Minoxidil lotion 5 % minoxidil is recommended for male pattern baldness.
- Minoxidil needs to be applied on the bald scalp twice a day.
- It usually takes three to four months or more for any effect to be noticed.
- Treatment needs to be continued indefinitely.
- Side-effects are uncommon. Rarely, skin irritation or itching sometimes occurs.
Finasteride - It works by blocking the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The hair follicles are then not affected by this hormone, and can enlarge back to normal.While taking finasteride, there are good chances of hair growth and stoppage of further hair loss. It takes about three to four months for any effect to be noticed, and up to 1-2 years for full hair growth. Side-effects are uncommon. The most common is that about 2 in 100 treated men report loss of sex drive (libido).
Techniques such as hair transplantation, scalp flaps, and other procedures have been used for male pattern hair loss.
What Is a Hair Transplant?
Hair transplantation is surgery that involves removing a narrow strip of hair-bearing scalp from the back of the head and using it to fill an area with thin or no hair.
Most hair transplants are performed under local anesthesia. To transplant hair, 3- to 4-inch strip of scalp at the back of head is removed and sutured. This area is immediately hidden by the hair around it.
The strip of removed scalp is divided into approximately 500 to 2,000 tiny grafts containing an individual hair or just a few hairs each. After the grafts are prepared, hair is placed, in the slits prepared in the recipient area. Depending on the extent of the procedure, the transplant will take approximately four to eight hours. Sometimes additional sessions are needed if hair loss is extensive.
Expectations and Recovery
Surgical dressing over the scalp is required for at least a day or two. Most people are able to return to work two to five days after surgery. Within two to three weeks after surgery, the transplanted hair fall out, new growth is noticeable within a few months. Most people attain 60% of new hair growth after six to nine months.
Costs of Treatment
The cost of hair transplantation will depend largely on the amount of hair to be transplanted, but it generally ranges from 5000 t0 10,000 per 100 follicular grafts.
Laser Hair Removal
How does laser hair removal work?
The laser involves a beam of light that searches for a mass of hair follicles deep beneath the skin destroying the root. The laser beam targets only the hair follicles and not the surrounding skin. For comfort, the skin is usually cooled with a gel or cream during the process. The laser destroys hairs in its active growth phase and 60 to 85% of our hair is in that phase at any given time.
Is laser hair removal permanent?
There are no lasers that have achieved permanent hair removal, only permanent hair reduction is possible. What it does mean is that a significant percentage of hair that is treated with the laser will not grow back. Each session should prove to be more successful at removing the remaining hairs than the previous. One can achieve anywhere from a 70% – 90% reduction in hair growth. These results will be influenced by certain conditions such as skin and hair colour and hormones.
How many treatments are needed?
Individual treatments differ according to skin and hair colour. The lighter the skin and darker the hair, the better the results are. On average it’s about 6-8 treatments but one may need more depending on certain conditions. Treatments should be every 4-6 weeks apart depending on the growth rate of ones hair.
How long does each session take?
Laser treatments can take from just fifteen minutes to a few hours, depending on the size of the area being treated. The area being treated determines the time of each session. A smaller area, such chin or upper lip can take as little as ten to fifteen minutes, as opposed to the back or leg which can take up to an hour.
What kind of results is expected on the first session?
With each session significant changes are seen in the amount of hair reduced in the treated area. The results will vary in different individuals.
Who are good candidates for laser hair removal?
There is an ideal skin tone and hair color for laser hair removal, but that does not mean everyone else is excluded. The ideal candidate for laser hair removal is someone with fair skin, and darker, coarser, hair. You should avoid tanning or sunburn prior to the procedure. Gray, Light Blonde to White hair generally do not treat well.
Are there any risks to laser hair removal?
The FDA has approved laser hair removal as a safe procedure. To-date, there have been no illnesses or diseases related to the laser. Some people may experience the following potential temporary side effects:itching, redness ,swelling around mouth of follicle for few hours.
What areas can the laser treat?
Aside from the area close to the eye, almost any area of the body with excess hair can be treated with lasers. Most commonly, patients ask for treatments for their face, upper lip, neck, chest, breasts, underarms, back, abdomen, bikini line and legs.
Under Eye Dark Circles
What causes under eye dark circles ?
Most common causes of dark circles:
- Any kind of stress, physical or psychological
- Allergies and Eczema.
- Lack of proper sleep
- Excessive Exposure to Sun.
- Old Age causing sagging & wrinkling of skin under eyes.
Treatment options for dark circles
- Skin lightening creams
- Chemical peels.
- Non surgical Face lift.
- Surgical treatment i.e. blepharoplasty & Autologous fat transplant.
What are treatment modalities available for acne scars?
Acne scars or scarring due to pimples are a common problem causing significant distress to the patients. Various treatment options are available according to type of scars, skin type and age of the patient.
- Chemical peeling.
- Laser resurfacing.
- Surgical methods.
Can psoriasis be cured?
Psoriasis is not currently curable. However, it can go into remission and show no signs of disease. Fortunately, when it is active, many treatment options are available to manage psoriasis. Often people have worsening of their symptoms in the winters. In most patients, however, it is a chronic, life-long condition with alternating periods of flaring and clearing.
How to prevent ageing of skin
Skin changes are among the most visible signs of aging. Since ageing cannot be fully avoided, so certain steps can be taken to slow down the ageing process:
- Sun protection: physical protection by protective clothing and use of a broad spectrum sunscreen.
- Balanced healthy diet with fiber rich diet with fruits
- Intake of plenty of water.
- Regular exercise
- Reduction of stress.
- Maintaining adequate hydration of skin through use of moisturizers and emollients.
- Avoiding excessive or regular use of cosmetics.
- Avoid smoking.
Treatment Options for Aged Skin- Fine Wrinkles
- Chemical Peel
- Dermaroller treatment
- Laser resurfacing
- Dermal fillers; Botox (Botulinum toxin)
What is psoriasis?
Psoriasis, a chronic skin condition, causes skin cells to grow too quickly producing red patches of skin with thick silvery white flakes
What causes psoriasis?
While the exact cause of psoriasis is unknown the immune system and genetics play role in its development. Most researchers agree that the immune system is somehow mistakenly triggered, which speeds up the growth cycle of skin cells among other immune reactions.
Is psoriasis contagious?
Psoriasis is not contagious. It does not spread from one person to person.